This information from the FCA and The Pensions Regulator (TPR) will help you understand the value of a defined benefit (DB) pension and what to think about if you are considering transferring out of a DB pension scheme. Transferring a DB pension may give you more options for your retirement, but it’s not right for everyone.
Defined benefit pensions
A defined benefit (DB) pension, sometimes called a final salary pension, gives you a guaranteed lifetime income that usually increases each year to protect you against inflation. It may also continue being paid to your partner at a reduced rate when you die.
When you start taking your pension, you can usually choose to receive a tax-free lump sum in return for giving up some of the income. You don’t have to make any other decisions because the employer and trustees of the scheme are responsible for making sure there is enough money to make your payments. You pay no charges as a member of a DB scheme.
Defined contribution pensions
The value of your pension pot is affected by changes in the value of the assets you invest in - such as shares, bonds and property - and it will go up and down in value. There are no guarantees that your pension pot will let you maintain your chosen level of income for the rest of your life, unless you chose to buy a guaranteed lifetime income, known as an annuity. You can say who you want to receive your remaining pension pot when you die. You or your adviser are responsible for managing the pot until it runs out. You need to pay charges to an adviser if you choose to take advice on how to invest. You will also pay charges to the pension scheme operator, platform provider and to the investment managers who manage the assets inside your pension.
If you are considering transferring your DC pension, see our webpage for more information.
Risks of transferring
If you transfer from a DB scheme to a DC scheme, you:
- lose the guaranteed lifetime income from your DB scheme, for you and your dependants
- lose the inflationary protections offered by your DB scheme
- have to pay a DC scheme, and investment managers, to manage your pension and the investments in it, which is deducted from your pension pot
- have to decide how to invest your money, or pay someone to do it for you
- may see your pension pot fall in value, as well as rise
- may have less income in retirement, particularly if the value of your pension pot falls
- may run out of money in your lifetime
If you are considering a transfer because the employer who runs the DB scheme is changing or replacing the scheme, please read the information that they provide. This will help you understand the new arrangements, the timeframes involved and what you will be giving up if you transfer.
Who is least suited to a transfer?
A transfer is probably not for you if:
- this is your main or only pension
- you will rely on income from this pension throughout your retirement
- your DB pension meets your needs, so you don’t need to invest in assets that might go down in value
- you have dependants who might prefer some of the DB pension features, such as a guaranteed income rather than a lump sum
You may be less suited to a transfer if you cannot accept a lower income. For example, you may be considering a transfer because some of the features of a DC pension scheme appeal to you, such as flexibility or control of your money or better death benefits. But having these features often means having to compromise in other areas, such as the level of income you can take. This means you might struggle to achieve the retirement you want, for example if you want:
- a higher tax-free lump sum you will have to take a lower income from your pension
- to retire early in a DC scheme, you will be responsible for setting a lower level of income so that your money can last for longer
- control of your money you will need to manage your investments and pay charges which will reduce the amount in your pension pot
You may be less suited to a transfer if there are alternative options available to achieve the goals you want to achieve. For example, if you want your family to inherit your pot on your death, you need to remember that by the time you die, you may have spent a lot of the money. Most people near retirement today will live well into their 80s, with many surviving into their 90s. If you want to protect your family financially, you could consider buying life insurance instead.
Who is best suited to a transfer?
Most DB scheme members who would benefit from a transfer do not rely only on their DB scheme to meet their income needs and will usually have other sources of retirement income. For example, they may have other pensions and investments. Alternatively, they may be managing income for wealth or tax planning by taking it sooner or later, in a way that does not impact on their ability to meet expenditure needs throughout retirement.
If you have a limited life expectancy, you want your family to be financially secure on your death. If you transfer, you may be able to get more value from a transfer for yourself and your family than if you stay in a DB scheme. But you should also consider whether you and your dependants would be better off with the guaranteed income from a DB scheme. If you die within 2 years of a transfer, there could be extra tax charges to pay.
There may be rare occasions when those in serious financial difficulty could benefit from a transfer. But this will generally mean sacrificing long term security for short term gain.
What to avoid
- don’t make decisions about your pension quickly – take your time to make sure you understand the risks
- don't transfer just because your colleagues are doing the same
- don’t talk to companies who contact you out of the blue offering to talk about your pension options
- avoid scams and unusual investments, marketed by people or companies who tell you they can give you higher returns or early access to your pension - check our ScamSmart section to help spot scams
- be careful if you are based overseas and using non-UK firms to advise you on investments if you transfer – you may not have the same level of protection, and there may be extra charges or commissions